Prostate Cancer: Symptoms and Causes

Prostate Cancer


Prostate cancer is the most common cancer affecting the prostate gland. Approximately 1,414,259 cases were diagnosed in 2020. Although it is a common disease that can occur in men at any age, it is more likely to affect men over 50. Prostate cancer is typically slow-growing and asymptomatic until it’s advanced and spreads outside the prostate. By knowing the causes and symptoms, one can diagnose it early and get effective treatment for this potentially life-threatening condition. 

Keep reading this article as we discuss the causes and symptoms of prostate cancer.

How does the prostate work?

The walnut-shaped prostate gland below the bladder is an integral part of the male reproductive system and is responsible for producing, nourishing, and transporting sperm. The prostate gland envelops the urethra, a slender tube that transports urine from the bladder to the pennis.

What is prostate cancer?

When cancer develops in the prostate, it arises from the growth of abnormal and unwanted cells within the gland. It is the most common type of cancer and does not cause serious harm. This cancer progresses slowly and is localised in the prostate or a little beyond it. However, cancerous cells have the potential to multiply uncontrollably, which can fastly spread if left untreated. If it moves to any other part of the body, then it is categorised as advanced prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer is classified into three stages

  1. Stage 1: The cancerous tumour is limited to the prostate gland and not beyond.
  2. Stage 2: The cancerous tumour is at risk of spreading beyond the prostate gland.
  3. Stage 3: When cancer spreads outside the gland to other parts, including bones, lungs and liver, this is called advanced prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer symptoms

Recognising the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer is crucial for early detection and immediate treatment. Although different people experience different symptoms of prostate cancer, here are some key indicators that can confirm the presence of prostate cancer and which may require immediate doctor consultation:

  • Frequent urination (especially at night)
  • A weak and interrupted urine flow 
  • Dull ache in the lower pelvic area
  • Blood in the urine
  • Painful ejaculation 
  • Pain and mild cramps in the lower back, hips, and thighs
  • Appetite loss
  • Weight loss
  • Extreme tenderness in bones

However, it is essential to note that some non-cancerous conditions can also cause these symptoms. 

Prostate cancer causes:

The specific factors that cause the development of prostate cancer are still not known precisely, but doctors explained several common factors that can increase the risk of this disease.  

Older age

The risk of prostate cancer increases by increment in age. A patient can be diagnosed with this disease after the age of 50. You should get checked for prostate cancer if you are over 50. If there is a history of prostate cancer in your family, then your risk of developing the cancer increases significantly. Early detection is the key to a successful treatment.


The chances of prostate cancer occurring in Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand are much higher than other countries. Lifestyle factors such as lack of physical activity, an unhealthy diet that is high in fat and processed foods, and obesity are all linked to a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. 


If any relative blood is diagnosed earlier with the disease, the risk of prostate cancer may increase. And if there is a genetic history of breast cancer, the risk rate is higher. 


In obese people, the cancer is more aggressive, and the chances of recurrence after primary treatment are high. Whereas people with healthy weight rarely suffer from this disease. 


Research has shown that chronic consumption of red meat, alcohol, and some saturated fats can increase the risk of prostate cancer.  

Sedentary lifestyle

Sitting for a long time can fatten you up and contribute to the risk of developing prostate cancer.


Prostate cancer is a severe yet curable health condition worldwide. One must not ignore the symptoms mentioned above and seek immediate attention. If left untreated, the prostate tumour can spread throughout the body, leading to severe complications. 

FAQs related to prostate cancer

Is prostate cancer curable? 

Prostate cancer can be 100% cured when detected early. Surgical treatments are required in advanced cases where cancer has increased beyond the prostate. You need to follow up every 3 to 6 months. Treatment options may include surgery, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy. 

Can a man survive with prostate cancer? 

The survival rate of prostate cancer is generally high. More than 85 out of every 100 men survive prostate cancer for more than five years after they are diagnosed. Life expectancy can vary depending on several factors, including the individual’s overall health and the effectiveness of the chosen treatment. 

What is the first sign of prostate cancer? 

Early stage prostate cancer symptoms may not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, if the symptoms do occur, they can include urinary problems like the urge to pee frequently, difficulty starting or stopping urination, weak urine flow, or some sensation of incomplete bladder emptying.

This article is for informational purposes only and does not constitute medical advice. The information contained herein is not a substitute for and should never be relied upon for professional medical advice. Book a consultation with andSons medical team to learn more about healthcare treatments here.

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